ZIMSEC O Level Commerce Notes: Business Organisations: Public Limited Companies
- Membership is open to the public.
- Membership is by invitation through a prospectus.
- Formed by at least two shareholders and there is no upper limit.
- Governed by the Companies Act.
- The founding members have to draw up a prospectus, articles and memorandum of association and a statutory declaration and submitted to the Registrar of Companies.
- A certificate of incorporation is issued by the Registrar of Companies.
Control and Management
- Controlled and managed by the Board of Directors
- The Board of Directors is elected by the ordinary shareholders at an Annual General Meeting.
- The Board of Directors:
- Decide on the company’s policy.
- Choose a Managing Director (sometimes known as a Chief Executive Officer).
- The Managing Director is responsible for the day to day running of the business.
- Ordinary shareholders vote to decide on important matters and to pass resolutions.
- Annual accounts are audited and published in the press.
- The shareholders enjoy limited liability which means that:
- they do not lose their personal property in settlement of company debts and
- that they only lose amounts invested.
Disposal of profits
- Are distributed as dividends to shareholders.
- Can be set aside as a General Reserve.
- Can be ploughed back into the business ( Retained Earnings)
- Can be used to service loans.
- Can be invested into financial/stock markets to generate income.
- Is used to pay Corporate Tax.
Raising of capital
- Selling shares to members of the public.
- Issuing debentures to members of the public.
- Loans, overdrafts and mortgage finance from banks.
- Ploughing back some profits.
- Debt factoring.
- Leasing fixed assets.
- Hire Purchase
- Trade credit.
To access more topics go to the Commerce Notes page.