ZIMSEC Advanced Level Business Studies Notes

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A.The need for and nature of business activity

1. Levels of Business Activity

2. Sectors of the Economy

3. Forms of Business:

a) Sole Traders

b) Partnerships

c) Private Limited Company

d) Public Limited Companies

e) Public Corporation

f) Cooperatives

B) Business and Economic Structures:

1) Free Market Economy

2) Planned Economy

3) Mixed Economy

4) Multinational Companies

5) Privatization

C) Size and Growth of Business:

1) Methods of measuring the size of a business

2) Methods of growth

3) The effects of growth

4) Importance of small businesses.

5) State interference in Business activities

D) Business Strategy:

1) The nature of Objectives

2) Objectives of the business

3) Constraints to objectives (PESTC)

4)Stages of decision making

5) Conflict of Objectives

E) Stakeholders of the Business

1) Stakeholders of the business

2) Business and the State

3) MBO

F) Cooperate Culture and Strategy

A) The need and nature of Organisational Structure

1) Types of organisational structure:

a) Functional

b) Divisional

c) Matrix Structures

2) Formal Organisations:

a) Accountability

b)Decentralization and Centralization

3) Line and Staff organisation

4) Organisational structure:

a) Formal and Informal organisations

b) Advantages and Disadvantages of hierarchical organisations

c) Matrix structure

d) Changes in organisational Structure

e) Features of a formal structure

B) Motivation and Leadership

1) Motivational Theories:

a) Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs

b) F.W. Taylor’s Theory of Scientific Management

c) Elton Mayo

d) Hezberg

e)McGregor’s Theory of X and Y

2) Financial and Non-Financial methods of motivation

a) Financial Methods

b) Non-Financial Methods

c) Chain of Command and Span of Control

3) Leadership:

a) The nature of leadership

b) Leadership styles

c) Leadership roles in business

d) Appropriateness of leadership styles

C) Management

1) Management Functions

2) Management theories

D) Business Communication

1) The purpose of Communication

2) Barriers to effective communication

3) Methods of communication

4) Lines of communication

E) Human Resources Management

1) Purpose and function of Human resources management

2) Labour management resources

3) Job evaluation

4) Health and Safety in the workplace

5) Training

6) Development