ZIMSEC O Level Commerce Notes: Transport: Modes of transport: Sea
- Is cheap.
- Suitable for:
- bulky cargo e.g. crude oil.
- Heavy goods e.g. mineral ores.
- Mixed cargo i.e. different goods.
- Different types and sizes of ships are available.
- Special vessels for special cargo ie. Refrigerated ships and tankers.
- They carry containers.
- Can be re-routed easily.
- There is no need to construct a route.
- Are a slow mode of transport.
- The use of cranes and fork-lifts results in:
- high cost of loading and unloading.
- Unemployment as less stevedores are engaged.
- There is need for special packaging as goods can deteriorate if exposed to the salty water of the sea.
- Harbours, docks, quays and ports are expensive to construct.
- Various levies are charged e.g. wharfage, dock,warehousing and harbour costs.
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