Isotopes and the importance of proton numbers

////Isotopes and the importance of proton numbers

Isotopes and the importance of proton numbers

The three isotopes of hydrogen. Image credit wikipedia.org

The three isotopes of hydrogen. Image credit MediaWiki

ZIMSEC O Level Combined Science Notes: Isotopes and the importance of proton numbers

  • The electron orbits of these two elements is small and can only carry two electrons
  • The next element in the series is lithium
  • It comes with two electronic shells
  • The second outer shell can hold 8 electrons
  • Lithium has a proton number of three and has one electron in the outer shell
  • The way in which the electrons are arranged determines the reactions of the elements
  • The movement of electrons from one atom to another gives elements their chemical properties
  • Atoms of the same element are the same
  • They behave in the same way in a chemical reaction
  • Electrons can only escape from their orbits if energy is supplied
  • If they can do so easily then the element is very reactive

The nucleon number and isotopes

  • The proton number of an element does not include the number of neutrons in an atom
  • Because neutrons have no charge, an excess of them does not affect the charge of a nucleus
  • Some atoms have the same number of protons and electrons but a different number of neutrons
  • These atoms are known as isotopes
  • Isotopes have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
  • For example Chlorine 35 has 17 protons and 18 neutrons
  • and Chlorine 37 has 17 protons and 20 neutrons
  • These two are isotopes

To access more topics go to the Combined Science Notes page.

By |2017-01-17T11:15:09+00:00February 29th, 2016|Notes, O Level Science Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|Comments Off on Isotopes and the importance of proton numbers

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He holds an Honours in Accountancy degree from the University of Zimbabwe. He is passionate about technology and its practical application in today's world.
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