ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Settlements: Hoyt’s Sector model (1939)
- It was published as an alternative to Burgess and Park’s concentric model
- It was based on a study of 142 American cities.
- In making the model Hoyt made some assumptions
- The model assumes wealthy people who can afford the highest rentals and rates chose the best sites.
- Wealthy residents can afford private cars or transportation thus they live further from industry and near main roads.
- Similar land uses attract each other and repel other land uses.
- This process is referred to as sector development
- The city or town as a single CBD or core.
- People need to move from one area of the town to another.
- According to Hoyt areas alongside main roads/communication lines attract the highest rent and rates.
- The city grows in a series of wedges
- Land use follows transport routes from the CBD.
- Once a certain area has developed a distinctive land use or function it tends to retain that land use as the city grows outwards
- Hoyt also identifies different residential zones in relation to income, opportunity and class.
- Sectors thus replace the rings in Burgess and Park’s model.
- This is because of unequal access as the city grows outwards along major routes.
- Major routes attract manufacturing.
- Next to the industrial zone are low class worker’s houses for example Mbare and Leighton industries, Willowvale and Highfields and Mbare and Graniteside.
- These houses are followed by middle class houses ( Waterfalls next to Mbare) and then high income houses.
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