A stamp showing a Portoguese impression of the Mutapa Gatsi Rusere. Notice the decidely European features. Image credit stampdata.com

A stamp showing a Portuguese impression of the Mutapa Gatsi Rusere. Notice the decidedly European features. Image credit stampdata.com

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: The Mutapa State: Reasons for the fall of the Mutapa State

  • The following reasons can be given to account for the fall of the Mutapa state:
  • The succession to the throne by weak leaders such as the Mukombwes and Negomo
  • Succession disputes which often led to
  • Civil wars
  • The vast size of the state made communication and control difficult.
  • Persistent droughts further weakened the state.
  • Rebellious by vassal chiefs.
  • Refusal to pay tribute by vassal chiefs.
  • Attacks by Mfecane groups for example the Mutapa Kandeya and Mutapa Dzeka were attacked by the Ngoni.
  • Ndebele raids further weakened the state.
  • The exhaustion of minerals like gold.
  • The coming of imperial European powers who competed to control the state.
  • Portuguese interference for example the installation of puppet rulers like Mavhura Mhande.
  • The Portuguese also supplied weapons to rival chiefs and often interfered in civil wars.
  • The rise of Changamire Dombo and the Rozvi kingdom.
  • The Swahili influence was also detrimental to the unity of the state.

To access more topics go to the History Notes page.

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