ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: The Mutapa State: Reasons for the fall of the Mutapa State
- The following reasons can be given to account for the fall of the Mutapa state:
- The succession to the throne by weak leaders such as the Mukombwes and Negomo
- Succession disputes which often led to
- Civil wars
- The vast size of the state made communication and control difficult.
- Persistent droughts further weakened the state.
- Rebellious by vassal chiefs.
- Refusal to pay tribute by vassal chiefs.
- Attacks by Mfecane groups for example the Mutapa Kandeya and Mutapa Dzeka were attacked by the Ngoni.
- Ndebele raids further weakened the state.
- The exhaustion of minerals like gold.
- The coming of imperial European powers who competed to control the state.
- Portuguese interference for example the installation of puppet rulers like Mavhura Mhande.
- The Portuguese also supplied weapons to rival chiefs and often interfered in civil wars.
- The rise of Changamire Dombo and the Rozvi kingdom.
- The Swahili influence was also detrimental to the unity of the state.
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