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Geography O Level Notes

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Geography O Level Notes 2017-05-13T12:21:37+00:00

Aerial view of a human settlement

SECTION A

 WEATHER AND CLIMATE

LANDFORM STUDIES

2. Folding, faulting and Volcanoes
a) Folding
                  i) Landforms resulting from folding.
b) Faulting
                i) Landforms resulting from Faulting
                i) Intrusive volcanic landforms
                ii) Extrusive volcanic landforms
                iii) Caldera
                iv) Lava Plateaus
                v) Hot springs and geysers
                 i) Effects of earthquakes.

BIOTIC STUDIES

  1. Factors which influence vegetation
  2. Climatic Regions of the World
  3. Ecosystems:
    1. The Savannah ecosystem
    2. Equatorial Regions ecosystem
    3. The Hot desert ecosystem
  4. People and ecosystems

SECTION B

  1. Types of natural resources
  2. The exploitation of natural resources:
    1. Problems faced during exploitation of natural resources
    2. Renewable Resources:
      1. Forestry:Introduction
        1. Zimbabwe’s Forests:
          1. Brachystegia Savanna Woodland
          2. Mopani Savanna Woodland
          3. Acacia Savanna Woodland
          4. Mountain forests and grassland
          5. Effects of population growth on Zimbabwe’s forests
          6. Effects of deforestation in rural areas
          7. Sustainable Management of forest resources in rural areas
          8. Indigenous commercial forests
          9. Exotic commercial forests:
            1. Uses,problems,solutions of commercial forests in Zimbabwe
        2. Deforestation of Trees
        3. World Forests:
          1. Tropical Rainforests:
          2. Coniferous forests:
          3. Deciduous temperate forests
      2. Fishing:
        1. Inland Water Fishing:
          1. Fishing in Natural Lakes
          2. Fishing in Malawi
          3. Fresh water fishing outside Malawi
          4. Fishing Methods
          5. Fish processing and marketing
          6. Fishing in Lake Kariba
          7. Fishing in other parts of Zimbabwe
          8. Problems with inland fishing
        2. Ocean and Sea Fishing:
          1. Ocean currents and their effect on the fishing industry
          2. Sea fisheries found on the east coast of Southern Africa
          3. Sea fisheries found on the west coast of Southern Africa
          4. The world’s major fisheries
          5. Problems faced by the ocean and sea fishing industry
          6. Sea Fishing Methods
          7. Fish Processing and Marketing
          8. Problems affecting the world’s fishing industry
          9. Fish conservation  in seas
        3. Fish conservation
        4. Solutions for sustaining the world’s fisheries
        5. Aquaculture and its advantages and disadvantages
      3. Water as renewable resource
        1. The hydrological cycle
        2. Sources of fresh water
        3. Zimbabwe’s main water sources
        4. Sustainable water consumption
        5. Quality of Water
        6. Water Pollution
        7. Conservation of Water
        8. Water Shortages
    3. Non-Rewable Resources: Mining
      1. Mining in Zimbabwe:
        1. Importance of Mining to the economy of Zimbabwe
        2. Problems being faced by the Mining Industry in Zimbabwe
        3. Gold panning in Zimbabwe
      2. Copper Mining in Zambia:
        1. Copper products, benefits and problems
      3. The Effects of Mining on the environment
      4. Conservation of mineral resources
      5. Rehabilitation of Mines
      6. Oil Drilling in Nigeria:
        1. Benefits, drawbacks, problems of oil extraction
  3. Energy:Introduction
    1. Classification of Energy sources
    2. Hydro-electric power
    3. The siting and production of Hydro-electric power: Gorges
    4. The siting and production of hydro-electric power: Rivers and Space
    5. Thermal power
    6. Thermal Power: Locational Factors
    7. Geothermal power: Introduction
    8. Geothermal power: Factors affecting their location
    9. Nuclear power: Introduction
    10. Nuclear power: Factors affecting location
    11. Biogas
    12. Solar energy
    13. Bio-Fuel
    14. Wood Stove
    15. Energy resources in Zimbabwe
    16. The energy crisis in Zimbabwe
    17. Possible measures to solve the energy crisis in Zimbabwe
    18. Africa’s Energy Resources
  4. Advantages and Disadvantages of different sources of energy:
    1. Coal
    2. Oil
    3. Natural Gas
    4. Nuclear Power
    5. Solar Energy
    6. Hydro-electricity
    7. Wood/Cow dung/Crop residue

5. The conservation of resources

SECTION C

A.Settlements

  1. Introduction
  2. Siting and location of settlements
  3. Classification of settlements:
    1. Rural settlements:
      1. Rural settlement patterns
      2. The quality of rural settlements
    2. Urban settlements and their structure:
      1. The concentric model/Burgess’s model (1924)
      2. Hoyt’s Sector model (1939)
      3. Harris and Ullman’s Multi-nuclei model (1945)
  4. Zimbabwe’s towns and cities
    1. The city of Harare
    2. The city of Bulawayo
    3. The city of Gweru
    4. The city of Mutare
  5. Urbanisation:
    1. Benefits and problems of Urbanisation
    2. Possible solutions to Urbanisation problems
  6. Urban hierarchy and sphere of influence:
    1. Factors that affect Spheres of influence
  7. District and Service centers

B. Population

  1. Introduction and importance of population studies
  2. Population census:
    1. Advantages and Disadvantages of a Population Census
  3. Registration as a source of population information
  4. Sample surveys as a source of population information
  5. Population Distribution:
    1. Factors affecting population distribution
  6. Population Distribution in Zimbabwe
  7. Population Distribution in Africa
  8. Population growth, change and structure:
    1. Population growth:

      1. Causes of Rapid Population change and the effects of rapid population change
    2. Population change
    3. Population structure
  9. Migration:
    1. Causes of Migrations
    2. Internal Migrations
    3. International Migrations
    4. The effects of migration
  10. Refugees:
    1. The refugee problem
    2. Possible solutions to the refugee problem
  11. Population and resources
    1. Population and Land
    2. Population and health
  12. Terms used in Population studies
  13. Killer diseases in the tropics:
    1. Bilharzia
    2. Malaria
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