A painting depicting a typical Portuguese army in the 16th century. Image credit paradoxplaza.com

A painting depicting a typical Portuguese army in the 16th century. Image credit paradoxplaza.com

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: The Portuguese in Zambezi Valley: Methods used by the Portuguese to control the Mutapa State

  • The Portuguese used a variety of methods to try and exert control on the Mutapa State and these included:
  • Taking control of the trade in the Mutapa State for themselves.
  • Controlling the mining activities in the state using forced labour.
  • Converting some of the leaders and their subjections into Christianity e.g. Negomo (Sebastiao)
  • Encouraged and intervened in civil wars.
  • Carried out slave trade.
  • Forced the Mutapa and his chiefs to pay tribute to them.
  • Singed treaties and concessions.
  • Created chikunda forces.
  • Established private prisons to incarcerate, intimidate, flog and punish Africans.
  • Took large swathes of land from the Africans.
  • Married Mutapa women.
  • Refused to pay their taxes.
  • Adopted the Mutapa traditional religion and customs.
  • Introduced the credit system.
  • Forced the Mutapa to expel the Swahili traders.
  • Established feiras in the Mutapa state.

To access more topics go to the History Notes page.

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