ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: The Portuguese in Zambezi Valley: Methods used by the Portuguese to control the Mutapa State
- The Portuguese used a variety of methods to try and exert control on the Mutapa State and these included:
- Taking control of the trade in the Mutapa State for themselves.
- Controlling the mining activities in the state using forced labour.
- Converting some of the leaders and their subjections into Christianity e.g. Negomo (Sebastiao)
- Encouraged and intervened in civil wars.
- Carried out slave trade.
- Forced the Mutapa and his chiefs to pay tribute to them.
- Singed treaties and concessions.
- Created chikunda forces.
- Established private prisons to incarcerate, intimidate, flog and punish Africans.
- Took large swathes of land from the Africans.
- Married Mutapa women.
- Refused to pay their taxes.
- Adopted the Mutapa traditional religion and customs.
- Introduced the credit system.
- Forced the Mutapa to expel the Swahili traders.
- Established feiras in the Mutapa state.
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